Freedom of association refers to the rights of workers and employers to create and join organisations that represent them, such as trade unions and employers associations.
Workers must be free to choose how they are represented, and employers must not interfere in the process.
Collective bargaining is the process of negotiation between trade unions and employers related to working conditions, terms of employment and other work-related issues, such as union facilities, dispute resolution procedures, and mechanisms for cooperation, communication and consultation.
Indonesia has ratified the two core ILO conventions that aim to protect and promote workers’ rights to freedom of association and collective bargaining: Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organise Convention No. 87 of 1948 (C87) and Application of the Principles of the Right to Organise and to Bargain Collectively Convention No. 98 of 1949 (C98).